Indian Space Research Organization (for short- ISRO) is the National Space Institute of India headquartered in Bangalore. About seventeen thousand employees and scientists are working for this institute. The main function of the institute is to provide space-related technology for India. The main objectives of the space program include the development of satellites, launch vehicles, sounding rockets, and ground systems.
The Indian Space Research Organization was established on 15 August 1969. Back then It was then named ‘Indian National Committee for Space Research’ (INCOSPAR).
India’s first satellite, named Aryabhata, was launched into space by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975. It was named after the great Indian mathematician Aryabhata. It stopped working after 5 days. But was a major achievement for India.
On 7 June 1979, India’s second satellite Bhaskar, estimating 445 kg, was set in Earth’s orbit.
In 1980, the Rohini satellite was the first launch vehicle SLV-3 to be placed in orbit, Which is made by India.
ISRO later developed two other rockets. First, Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching satellite satellites, and second Polar orbits and Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle for placing satellites in geostationary orbit. These rockets launched several communication satellites and satellites deployed satellite navigation systems like Earth observation GAGAN and IRNSS.
In January 2014, ISRO successfully launched a GSLV-D5 GSAT-14 using an indigenous cryogenic engine.
The current director of ISRO is Dr. Kailasavativu Shivan. Today, India is not only able to meet its space-related needs but is also supporting many countries of the world with their space capacity at commercial and other levels.
ISRO sent Chandrayaan-1 on 22 October 2008 which orbited the moon. Right after this, on September 24, 2014, ISRO sent Mars Mangalyaan (Mars Orbiter Mission) orbiting Mars. Successfully entered the orbit of Mars and thus India became the first nation to succeed in its first attempt.
ISRO ranked fourth in the world as well as in Asia for the first time in a space agency to successfully reach the orbit of Mars.
Future plans include the development of GSLV Mk III (for the launch of heavy satellites) ULV, a reusable launch vehicle, manned space, further lunar exploration, interplanetary probes, development of a solar mission spacecraft, etc.
ISRO was awarded the Indira Gandhi Award for Peace, Disarmament, and Development for the year 2014. Nearly a year after the successful launch of Mangalyaan, it established India’s first space observatory as Astrosat on 29 September 2015.
As of June 2016, ISRO has launched 57 satellites from around 20 different countries and has so far earned the US $ 100 million.